The Bi Laws

Chapter I: Meetings

Article 1. General Assembly and Board meeting dates are fixed in advance for the whole year, usually during the first meeting following the annual General Assembly. The calendar of the quarterly board meetings is communicated to the membership. Board members are informed in writing two weeks in advance of any change in scheduling. Board meetings are open to the membership.

Article 2. Executive committee meetings are convened by the President when necessary. Executive committee decisions are valid when its members approve a given proposition. E-mail and teleconference meetings of Executive Committee are valid. Executive Committee decisions must be unanimous. Otherwise the decision will be referred to the next Board meeting.

Article 3. General Assembly meetings are valid when more than 30% members who have paid their dues for the current year attend. In the absence of this quorum, the President convenes a new General Assembly within the four weeks following the scheduled GA. This reconvened General Assembly and all decisions taken there are valid regardless of the number of participants.

Article 4. Board meetings are valid when 5 of the 15 members at least are present.

Article 5. Board members are replaced after absence without valid excuse at three consecutive quarterly board meetings.

Article 6. The agenda of the General Assembly is sent to all the members by mail or e-mail at least two weeks before the meeting.

Article 7. Agendas of Board meetings are usually fixed by the Board at its first meeting after the General Assembly. New items on the Agenda may be proposed by any member for inclusion and will be discussed after the regular business. If time does not permit, the proposed item will be part of the regularly scheduled business of the next meeting.

Article 8. The Board shall organize its business in such a way that each meeting will be devoted in priority to one or two areas (organizational matters and networking, development and fundraising, General Assembly and Conference, constitutional matters, etc).

Article 9. Board decisions are made as much as possible by consensus. If the Board fails to reach a decision on a given item, the President may call a vote. A two-thirds majority of members present is required for Board approval of a given proposition.

Article 10. The Secretary General is responsible for the minutes of all the meetings. The format of the minutes is the same for all the meetings. It includes the agenda for the meeting, the members present and excused, and a summary of the decisions. Draft minutes are sent to the members shortly after the meeting. The members are invited to propose corrections or clarifications to the SG. Revised minutes are submitted for approval at the next meeting and signed by the President and the Secretary General before being filed.

Article 11. Extraordinary Board meetings are convened as soon as possible when the MFAA President receives a written request signed by 10 out of the 15 members.

Article 12. All propositions submitted to the General Assembly for approval become valid with a simple majority vote of the members present at that Assembly.

Chapter II: Local Chapters

Article 13. Local chapters of the MFAA may be created in different regions in Morocco if proposed by at least five members of the Association. Applications are made to the Board who recommend or not the creation of a local chapter.

Article 14. Local chapter activities must be compatible with MFAA constitution, by-laws and rules.

Chapter III: Financial Procedures Moroccan law is the responsibility of the Board and the Executive Committee when mandated

Article 15. All financial decisions are made by the Board.

Article 16. The treasurer and vice-treasurer are responsible for keeping the accounts and the records of all the operations.

Article 17. Funds raised are made to the order of the Association. The utilization of in-kind contributions made in accordance with by the Board. An agreement specifying the use of funds is signed by the President and the representative of the donor institution.Contracts of this kind must be approved y the Board.

Article 18. The Association prepares the annual budget (expected expenses) based on the estimated moneys from membership fees. The budget is submitted to the General Assembly. Donated in-kind contributions and their utilization are recorded in the budget in a separate section.

Article 19. All checks are signed by the Treasurer (or the Vice-Treasurer in his/her absence) and by the President (or the Vice-President in his/her absence).

Chapter IV: Elections Procedures

Article 20. Elections for the Board are held every General Assembly to renew one third of the board. Exceptional provisions during the period 2007-2010 are adopted as follows:During the elections of 2007, 15 members will be elected. 5 elected for one year, 5 for two years, and the remaining 5 for three years. The outgoing 5 members in every term (2008 and 2009) will be determined according to Article 11.2b in chapter IV of the Constitution.

Article 21. The Board invites nominations from prospective candidates at least four weeks before the scheduled date of the General Assembly. Prospective candidates submit their nomination to the Board using the prescribed form. This form MFAA/EL/2004/01 includes information on the candidate, his or her Fulbright background and a statement by the candidate on the reasons for standing for a position on the board and the areas of possible contribution to the development of the Association.

Article 22. Nomination forms must be returned to the MFAA office (or e-mailed) at least two weeks before the General Assembly. No candidacies are accepted during the General meeting.

Article 23. The Board sends to the membership by email all the nomination forms received at least ten days prior to the General Assembly, together with the agenda and other material related to the GA (propositions that need voting and approval of the GA). All this material will be posted on MFAA website. Paper copies of all the documents will be available during the GA.

Article 24. Following registration of participants at the GA, and verification by the Secretariat of the Assembly of membership status, the full list of members will be distributed to the attendees. This list constitutes the electoral body (both the ones who voted electronically or who are present physically). MFAA Members unable to attend the General Assembly may vote electronically during the two-day period preceding the General Assembly. The General Secretary tallies the electronic vote and hands them to the Chair of the Election Committee before the physical vote starts. Members who vote electronically are considered present at the General Assembly.

Article 25. It is possible for candidates to board positions to be candidates and be elected in absentia, upon advance notification to the board and due cause.

Article 26. The elections of the Board are supervised by a Committee made up of three members, proposed by the General Assembly, among members who are not candidates, and is presided by one of the honorary members present at the meeting.

Article 27. The ballot contains the names of all the official candidates printed in alphabetical order. Voting is made by checking up to 11 (eleven) names among the candidates. The counting proceeds after the ballots are collected and match the list of eligible voters. The counting is public, transparent and if possible recorded on a video tape. Ballots with more than 11 checks or unclear indications or corrections are void.

Article 28. The President of the Election Committee announces the results and the scores obtained by each candidate.

Article 29. The ballots are kept by the President of the Election Committee in case of requests for recounts. Written applications for a recount are accepted within 48 hours, after which the results announced at the meeting are valid. The ballots are then filed for the MFAA records.

Article 30. The newly elected Board meets in the immediate aftermath of the election. This first meeting is presided by the most senior Fulbright alumnus/alumna present (date of grant award), who is not interested in standing for any executive position, and the minutes are taken by the most recently returned grantee.

Article 31. At this first meeting following elections the Board chooses among its members the 6 officers of the Association (The President, Vice-President, Secretary-General, Vice Secretary-General, Treasurer and Vice-Treasurer).

Article 32. The Board shall try to choose its executive committee through consensus. If a consensus cannot be reached, there will be a vote, through secret ballots. A simple majority is required for each position. After three rounds of unsuccessful voting, a relative majority is sufficient.

Article 33. The names of the officers of the Association along with the minutes of the GA are communicated to the membership within two weeks.

Chapter V: Amendments

Article 34. Amendments to the Constitution and to the By-Laws may be proposed by the Board or by individual members. Proposed amendments are made in writing and sent to the Board at least one month prior to the Annual General Assembly. The proposed amendments are put to the vote during the General Assembly. No amendments are accepted during the General Assembly.